Map of transportation networks in Virginia in 1861
New Map of Virginia: Compiled from the Latest Maps, Drawn and Colored by Hustead &Nenning, Hoyer and Ludwig Lithographers (Richmond, Va.: J. W. Randolph, 1861), Library of Virginia.
The New Map of Virginia was printed in the summer or autumn of 1861 and shows the new county of Bland created by an act of assembly passed on March 30, 1861. The map shows all of the canals, turnpikes, and railroads in Virginia at the time of the secession crisis. In 1860, Virginia had 1,771 miles of railroads, more than any other Southern state. Railroads, canals, and turnpikes enabled Virginia's farmers, merchants, and industrialists to take part in a national economy, including the annual sale of millions of dollars worth of slaves to other Southern and Southwestern states. Steamships on the Ohio River and oceangoing vessels that called regularly at the ports of Norfolk, Richmond, Petersburg, and Portsmouth allowed Virginia's agricultural and business leaders to export grain, flour, tobacco, and other commodities to worldwide markets and to import manufactured goods from Northern and European cities.